Saturday, November 16, 2019

Antibody Screening, Identification and Cross Match

Antibody Screening, Identification and Cross Match Antibody Screening, Identification and Cross Match: Case studies from Bristol Memorial Hospital Simon Avery and Malcolm Grey, School of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Bristol, BS8 ITH Summary Antibody screening, identification, and cross matching comprises an essential element of pre-transfusion testing procedure that is of paramount importance in blood bank establishments. Clinically significant antibodies can cause haemolytic transfusion reactions. Antibody screening is crucial for patients who require blood transfusions to detect the presence of any unexpected antibodies and ensure selection of the most compatible unit. We report on five patient case studies regarding the use of antibody screening and identification to select the most appropriate red cell units available. At this time, limited blood units were available. An analysis is provided with key emphasis on the importance of antibody cross matching and compatibility testing. Keywords: Antibody Screening, Clinically Significant, Compatibility testing, ABO, RhD Red Blood Cells (RBCs) carry a varying number of blood group antigens on their cell surface (Dean, 2005). To date, there are over 600 identified antigens within 30 distinguished blood group systems (Dean, 2005). To ensure the provision of safe blood for transfusion, antibody screening and identification is routinely performed in blood bank establishments in accordance with pre-transfusion testing procedures (Makroo et al., 2014). This is primarily achieved through the microcolumn gel technique, which has become the most prevalent technique used in blood bank laboratories worldwide (Hwang Shin et al., 2009). The aim is to detect unexpected antibodies and quantify their specificity to provide blood that lacks the corresponding antigen, forming an element of fundamental importance in clinical transfusion (Makroo et al., 2014). Alloimmunisation commonly occurs following blood transfusions and is defined as the immune response to antigens that are recognised as foreign (Yazdanbakhsh, 2012). The most important RBC alloantibodies in transfusion practice include the Rh (D, C, E, c, and e) and Kell antigens, in addition to the Duffy, Kidd, and MNS blood group antigens (Makroo et al., 2014; Dean, 2005). Antibodies that are considered clinically significant can cause haemolytic transfusion reactions, following the accelerated destruction and shortened survival of transfused RBCs (Garratty, 2012). Furthermore, clinically significant antibodies are associated with haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (Daniels et al., 2002). Therefore, it is critical to recognise and consider clinically significant antibodies present in a patient in order to select the most appropriate unit for transfusion (Makarovska-Bojadzieva, 2009). As a result, the blood service aims to provide a regular supply of all blood groups and blo od types. In this study, we present a case by case report of antibody screening, identification and cross matching for five patients, in addition to the management and use of blood units from a limited supply, highlighting the importance of clinically significant antibodies and their detection in transfusion medicine. Materials and Methods Patients The patients included in this study comprise five individuals with varying medical and transfusion history. The details of each patient are outlined in table 1. IAT Gel Antibody Screening DiaMed IAT gel cards were used to detect antibodies and performed on all five patients. Each well was labelled with the patient identification number (1-5) with 2 wells used for each patient. 50ÃŽÂ ¼l of 0.8% screening Cell Stab reagents and 25ÃŽÂ ¼l of patients plasma were added to the DiaMed IAT gel cards. Two controls, positive and negative, were prepared using 50ÃŽÂ ¼l of 0.8% O R1r in Cell Stab, with 25ÃŽÂ ¼l of AB serum added to the negative control and 25ÃŽÂ ¼l of weak anti-D added to the positive control. Cards were incubated at 37 °C for 15 minutes and spun in the DiaMed ID-Centrifuge 12 S II for 10 minutes at 1030 rpm. Cards were analysed for agglutination and results were scored accordingly from 0 to 5, where a negative score of 0 indicates no agglutination and a positive score of 5 indicates agglutination. Antibody Identification Antibody identification was performed on patients 2, 3, and 4 with a positive antibody screen, using enzyme and IAT panels. A 1% red cell suspension was prepared from 10ÃŽÂ ¼l packed red cells and 1mL DiaMed diluent. 50ÃŽÂ ¼l was added to each well followed by 25ÃŽÂ ¼l of patients plasma. Two controls were prepared. An IAT control was prepared from 50ÃŽÂ ¼l of R1r control cells and 25ÃŽÂ ¼l of weak anti-D. An enzyme testing control was prepared using R1R1 control cells and 25ÃŽÂ ¼l of anti-K. Cards were incubated at 37 °C for 15 minutes and spun in the DiaMed ID-Centrifuge 12 S II for 10 minutes at 1030 rpm. Cards were analysed using a light box and scored accordingly. Compatibility testing DiaMed IAT gel cards were used to perform compatibility tests for each patient against donor units. Each well was labelled accordingly with patient number and donor unit. 50ÃŽÂ ¼l of 1% donor unit cells in Cell Stab reagents and 25ÃŽÂ ¼l of patients plasma were added to the corresponding wells. Two controls, positive and negative, were prepared using 50ÃŽÂ ¼l of 1% O R1r in Cell Stab, with 25ÃŽÂ ¼l of AB serum added to the negative control and 25ÃŽÂ ¼l of weak anti-D added to the positive control. Cards were incubated at 37 °C for 15 minutes and spun in the DiaMed ID-Centrifuge 12 S II for 10 minutes at 1030 rpm. Cards were analysed and scored for agglutination, 0-5. Results Patient Gender Age Transfusion History Additional Medical Details 1 Female, 70 years old No history of blood transfusions Scheduled for repair of fractured hip joint following a fall 2 Female, 34 years old Undergone several surgeries to treat disease. Received blood during last surgery 5 years ago. Crohns disease Undergoing evaluation for unexplained anaemia 3 Male, 58 years old Received 4 units of RBCs during surgery 8 years ago. History of cardiovascular disease Undergone heart bypass surgery 4 Male, 14 years old Receives frequent blood transfusions for the management of his condition. Last transfusion dated 6 months ago. Sickle cell anaemia History of anti-K 5 Female, 19 years old No history of blood transfusions Involved in a road traffic accident Table 1 The medical history of each patient, including transfusion history. Patient ABO/RhD Type Screening Cell 1 Screening Cell 2 Interpretation 1 A+ * 0 0 No antibody detected 2 A+ 0 5 Antibody detected 3 B+ 3 0 Antibody detected 4 O+ 0 4 Antibody detected 5 O 0 0 No antibody detected Table 2 The ABO and RHD typing of each patient and results obtained from the antibody screening panel. Interpretation of results is also provided.* A mix field reaction was detected for patient 1 in the ABO/RHD screening.   Patient Antibody Present Probable Genotype Further Patient Information 1 Dce/dce R1r (31%) May require more units of red cells in the future but not today 2 Anti-c, Anti-E DCe/Dce R1R1 (18%) Requires 2 units today 3 Anti-Fya, Anti-K Dce/dce R0r ( Requires 2 units of red cells as soon as possible 4 Anti-K Dce/dce R1r (31%) Requires 3 units of red cells 5 Dce/dce rr (14%) No longer needs any blood Table 3 Results of the antibody identification screening panel and transfusion requirements for each patient. Patient Unit ABO/RhD Antigens 1 G M A / RhD Positive D+C+E-c+e+ A / RhD Negative D-C-E-c+e+ K Fya, S, M Negative Fya, JKa Negative 2 S F A / RhD Positive D+C+E-c-e+ O / RhD Positive D+C+E-c-e+ K, Fya, S, M Negative K, Fya, S, M, HbS Negative 3 Q R B / RhD Positive D+C-E-c+e+ B / RhD Negative D-C+E-c+e+ K, Fya, S, M, HbS Negative K, Fya, S, s, M Negative 4 J K I O / RhD Positive D+C+E+c+e+ O / RhD Positive D+C+E-c+e+ O / RhD Positive D+C-E-c+e+ K, Fya, S Negative K, Jka, S, M Negative K, Fyb, S, Lea Negative 5 T O / Rhd Negative D-C-E-c+e+ Fya, HbS Negative Table 4 Compatibility testing of each patient against selected donor units. Discussion Our first case study is a 70-year-old female who has been admitted for an operation to repair a fracture to her left hip joint, following a fall. The patient has no history of previous blood transfusions and appears in good health. Her son reports that she has been healthy throughout her life and only admitted to hospital for child birth. Pre-transfusion testing procedures were carried out to order blood for her upcoming surgery. The results for this patients ABO and RhD typing revealed a mixed field reaction for anti-D. Extended Rh typing also revealed a mixed field reaction for anti-c. Antibody identification was performed to determine if this patient has any clinically significant antibodies, in which none were detected. It is therefore possible that this patients ABO type may be A3, a subgroup of the A blood type. Weak subgroups of A3 are known to cause mixed field reactions (Dean, 2005), therefore we have requested this patients serum to be typed against A1, A2 and A3 cells. However, extensive ABO and RH typing is required to precisely determine this patients blood phenotype. This patient requires red cell units in the future for a planned operation. The units that have been designated for this patient include unit G and unit B, which are both A RhD positive red cell units. However, a full assessment of this patients blood type must be analysed before the administration of these components. Patient 2 forms our second case study, a 34-year-old female who suffers from Crohns disease. This patient has been admitted regarding unexplained anaemia. Patient 2 has previously undergone several surgeries to manage her condition. Her last surgery was 7 years ago, in which she received a blood transfusion. This patient has a haemoglobin level of 7.9 g/dL and 2 units of RBCs have been ordered for transfusion today. The antibody identification revealed clinically significant antibodies, including anti-c and anti-E. Most Rh blood group antibodies are warm reacting IgG antibodies that cause haemolytic and delayed transfusion reactions and haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn; therefore, they are considered clinically significant. Anti-C and anti-E are most commonly found together in patients, as most patients who have developed anti-E often go on to develop anti-c. The c antigen is highly immunogenic in comparison to the E antigen. As a result, anti-c may cause severe haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn in this patient, whereas anti-e may cause a mild reaction. However, as the patients RhD type is positive, it is unlikely that she will require anti-D prophylaxis. This patient requires two RBCs units today. The units that have been designated for this patient include unit S and unit F. Unit S is A RhD positive and unit F is O RhD positive, in which both units are negative for anti-c and anti-E. Our third patient is a 58-year-old male who has been admitted into hospital after complaining of chest pains and shortness of breath. This patient has a history of cardiovascular disease and underwent heart bypass surgery 8 years ago, in which he received 4 RBC transfusions. Upon arrival, a diagnosis of heart failure was determined and need for immediate surgery. Antibody testing for this patient revealed the patient is both positive for anti-Fya and anti-K. Furthermore, the probable genotype of this patient suggests African descent, therefore the patient will also receive anti-c and anti-e positive red cells. This patient requires two units of blood as soon as possible, in which unit Q and unit R have been allocated. The fourth patient in our case report is a 14-year-old male that suffers from sickle cell anaemia and has a history of anti-K. This patient receives frequent blood transfusions for the management of his condition, with his last transfusion dated 6 months prior to admission. The patient was brought in by his family regarding fatigue and shortness of breath. The patient has been kept in hospital for observation pending suspicion of sickle cell crisis. Three RBC units have been allocated for this patient including units J, K, and I. Each unit is O RhD positive and negative for anti-K.      Ã‚   Finally, the fifth patient featured in this report is a 19-year-old female that was involved in a road traffic accident. This patient has no history of previous blood transfusions and has never been admitted to hospital prior to this occasion, with her parents citing excellent health. The patient was admitted with trauma to the head, in which a single blood unit was allocated unit T. However, the patient no longer requires the unit at this time. The unit will be kept for the patient whilst she remains in hospital following any complications. Unit T was selected for this patient and is O RhD negative. This patient does not have any clinically significant antibodies. Throughout the treatment and assessment of these 5 patients, only 12 of blood were available. A total of 10 units were used to treat all 5 patients. Severe weather across the United Kingdom has impacted the distribution of blood from the NHS Blood and Transplant manufacturing sites located in Bristol, London, and Manchester. Access by road, rail, and air have all been affected by severe storms and rendered transport at a halt. The nearest blood bank could not be accessed and therefore a limited number of RBC units were available. References Daniels, G., Poole, J., de Silva, M., et al. (2002) The clinical significance of blood group antibodies. Transfusion Medicine. 12(5), 287 295. Available from: [Accessed 21/03/17] Dean, L. (2005) Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens. National Centre for Biotechnology Information. Available from: Garratty, G. (2012) What is a clinically significant antibody? ISBT Science Series, 7(1), 54 57. Available from: [Accessed 22/03/17] Hwang-Shin, J., Young Lee, J., Hyen Kim, J., et al. (2009) Screening and Identification of Unexpected Red Cell Antibodies by Simultaneous LISS/Coombs and NaCI/Enzyme Gel Methods. J Korean Med Sci. 24(4), 632 635. Available from: [Accessed 21/03/17] Makarovska-Bojadzieva T, Blagoevska M, Kolevski P, Kostovska S. (2009) Optimal blood grouping and antibody screening for safe transfusion. Prilozi, 30(1), 119-128. Available from: [Accessed 22/03/17] Makroo, RN., Bhatia, A., Hegde, V., et al. (2014) Antibody screening and identification in the general patient population at a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India. Indian J Med Res. 140(3), 401-405. Available from: [Accessed 21/03/17] Yazdanbakhsh, K., Ware R., Pirenne, F. (2012) Red blood cell alloimmunisation in sickle cell disease: pathophysiology, risk factors and transfusion management. Blood. 120(3), 528 537. Available from: [Accessed 22/03/17]

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Colonists Living Among Natives in the New World Essay -- American Amer

Colonists Living Among Natives in the New World When the Europeans invaded the New World in 1492 they brought along their culture and way of life. The Europeans were not prepared to encounter a previously developed culture, which was home to the Indians. The negative stereotype of the Indians as viscous savages and barbarians was immediately formed by the Europeans beginning as early as Christopher Columbus' discovery of the New World. These negative stereotypes made Europeans believe that Indians were hardly human and "believed that no civilized person would choose to become an Indian" (Axtell, Invasion 302). When in fact the opposite became true. Despite the European view of Indians as savages, there were many English and French colonists who actually chose to live among the Indians. The colonists lived among the Indians when they discovered that the Indians had a more desirable way of life and a very moral society. The colonists also joined the Indian society to escape the corruption of the colonial society and to gain personal freedom with the Indians. This paper focuses primarily on the English and French colonists experiences with Indians of the Northeastern United States. But the Spanish, who were the first to arrive at the New World, did spend time living with the Indians as well. One of the most important examples of a Spanish person who lived with the Indians was the discoverer of America, Amerigo Vespucci. Vespucci actually spent some time living and observing the Indian way of life (Washburn 6). He wanted to share in their lives so he shared their experiences, or as Gerbi world say, "he becomes a savage to understand the savages" (41). During the time that Vespucci stayed with the Indians, he found the Indian... ...ife and the rejection of the corrupt colonial society led to the number of colonists who voluntarily spent their lives with the Indians to be quite large and could have been even larger. "Had [the captives] not been compelled to return to colonial society by militarily enforced peace treaties, the ranks of the white Indians would have been greatly enlarged" (306). WORKS CITED Axtell, James. The European and the Indian. New York: Oxford University Press, 1981. Axtell, James. The Invasion Within: The Contest of Cultures in Colonial North America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1985. Gerbi, Antonello. Nature in the New World. Pittsburgh: U of Pittsburgh Press, 1975. Rosenstiel, Annette. Red & White: Indian Views of the White Man. New York: Universe Books, 1983. Washburn, Wilcomb E., ed. The Indian and the White Man. New York: Anchor Books, 1964.

Monday, November 11, 2019

Design a computer system for a video hire shop Essay

I have noticed that keeping customer records on paper can be time consuming and neither practical or easy to use. The aim of this project is to create a database for a company or an organization; I have chosen Vinnie’s videos. My database will include customer information to make organization and customer relations simpler; the new system will be more practical. An electronic database will make life easier as it will be superior to a card filling system and will save time and money. A computer system is better than the old card filing method for many reasons. Example, searches can be carried out instantly rather than many manual records being waded through, customer information for a hundred people can be copied almost instantly to a standard letter. Vinny will be able to keep customer information lists, detailing contact information, stats on the customers videos, lists of regular jobs that need to be performed i. e. check who has videos out; in order that notices can be sent using mail merge. This will help Vinny keep up to data and on top of customer relations and business. A search function for my database will make it simple for letters detailing special offers which are customer specific to be sent out easily. After considering the pros and cons of the two systems I have decided that it is definitely more practical to use a computer system over a card filling system. Strengths and Weaknesses of current system: Vinny currently has a very primitive filling system, It has a lot weaknesses. It takes a long time to find records, as they are stored in a filling cabinet. When editing a record you must remove the entire card and rewrite it, it is time consuming to add new records. To re-sort the records would take a very long time as it would obviously have to be done manually. To search for information is also time consuming, especially if you are looking for a number of customers with similar records for some purpose. However the database is comprehensive and does contain all the records needed. What I need to do is design and makes a new database with all the information from the old one transferred into it. There are also a number of programs that I could consider using, they are Microsoft word, Microsoft excel or Microsoft access. I will need to use a database creation package like MS Access, Fox Pro, DBASE II or IV or Borland Database Explorer to create my database tables, queries, forms, reports and macros easily and also program them with the Visual Basic programming script to make my database into a professional running program. According to the user requirements MS Access is the best one also because it is mostly familiar to people. I will need a word processing package like MS Word, Notepad, WordPad and Word Perfect. MS Word is the best one to use because you can use word art and insert pictures or print screens into the document and also is mostly used by people. Hardware needed: I need a computer that can run Microsoft Access and Microsoft Word just in case I need to use the mail merge. For this I will use a QWERTY keyboard for the manual input of data and the commands for the computer. I will need a mouse or trackball to design the database forms, to navigate the GUI of the OS and to move copy and paste data. I will need to use a 31/2 inch floppy disk and drive or a CDRW disk and drive in order to save my database and to make backups of my database. I will only use a CDRW if the database exceeds 1. 38-1. 44 MB. CDRW’s can hold from 500-700 MB of information. I will need a printer to print out the design of my database of for word documentation of the database. The system should have at least 300 MHZ hard drive speed, and 5 GB memory, it should have at least a 128 MB RAM. Problem1: a system management to put the videos in order Form of output: a database Information to be output: video title, video director, main actor, year released, length and genre, how many copies are available and how many are on loan. Data needed to produce the output: video title, video director, main actor, year released, length and genre, which will be provided by Vinny. Desired outcomes and performance criteria: It has to be sorted so you can see a certain type of genre or year. Testing: To see if all the correct records are in the right query. Problem 2: needs a system to store all the members’ names and addresses Form of output: a database Information to be output: name, address, user number, telephone. Data needed to produce the output: name, address, user number, telephone. This is provided by Vinny. Desired outcomes and performance criteria: member’s details available so we can contact them if needed. Testing: not needed Problem 3: I don’t have a system to see who has what video checked out and who has videos that are over due. Form of output: database Information to be output: name, user number, video rented, date taken out, date due back Data needed to produce the output: name, user number, video rented, date taken out, date due back. This will be provided by Vinny, anyone that rents a new video will be entered into the database. Desired outcomes and performance criteria: a list to see which videos are on loan. When somebody rents a video out all I want to have to do is click on the film name and type their name in. The rental time allowance will be 3 days and automatically entered Testing: see if the people who have taken a video out have a book due on the database Analysis of Strategies for Backup and Security. The system will be backed up on CD-RW’s daily and on hard disk drives and a server. The database will have an encrypted modification password and it will be write-protected so it cannot be deleted. If a staff member needs to access the database to modify it, then a staff password is needed. It will not open until the password is correct Information Flow Error Checking To ensure that the information is correct the staff will send the members an invoice with their details they have inputted and attached is another form to fill in the correct information and then collect it and update the database. For the videos the staff will do daily checks on the database to see any obscure looking information in the database and will edit this info by getting the video and re-entering the video data again. Or the staff will do two copies of information identical to each other because the information will be inputted twice and if they are not identical then one or the other or both are changed with the correct information. Skills The user is a competent pc user and will not need any sort of training, he would like it to be user friendly though, so if any new staff join, it will be easy to pick up.

Saturday, November 9, 2019

Casino by Martin Scorsese and Nicholas Pileggi essays

Casino by Martin Scorsese and Nicholas Pileggi essays The book Casino by Martin Scorsese and Nicholas Pileggi is a story set in Nevada during an era when mob activity in the Casinos was a focused topic of discussion for many politicians and law enforcement officials. It was a time of transition because before the events of the book the mafias had a reputed stronghold on all ofhte Las Vegas activity with regards to the gambling. People and corporations that owned casinos were told that they were selling to various entities(Scorsese, Pileggi, 1995). Whether they wanted to sell of or not, they were aware of the pressure to sell and concerned with what could happen to them or their families if they refused. The sales and the movement within the city of sin eventually brought the mafia into complete control. The story includes all of the suspense elements that make it a page turner. There are murders, marriages, stories of revenge and adultery. It is a story that details the eventual derailing of the Mafias stronghold on the industry in Las Vegas and the many people that went down with that reduction of power. The most important theme of the book is the idea that good over powers evil every time it has the opportunity to do so. For many years the mob provided crime and blackmail to those who were involved with the casino business. There was corruption, murder for hire and territorial issues that are exclusive to mob involvement. The theme of good outdoes evil is a popular one in many books and movies today however, Casino drives it home with extremes(Scorsese, Pileggi, 1995). The extremes occur when the murders in the desert happen but also during the more mundane events. There are many examples of the evil that the mob brought to the casino business. The mob was out of Chicago and there were constant Las Vegas issues including the skimming of books and other elements that are common to the world of crime. The theme of good versus evil continues to play out as the casino own...

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Using Haber and Estar for Spanish Compound Past Tenses

Using Haber and Estar for Spanish Compound Past Tenses Spanish students usually learn fairly early in their coursework that Spanish has two simple past tenses, the preterite and the imperfect. However, these two past tenses arent the only past tenses available. Auxiliary verbs can also be used to form perfect and progressive, also known as continuous, tenses, some of which refer to the past. Present Perfect Despite its name, the present perfect tense refers to past actions. It is formed by using the present tense of haber followed by the past participle and is the rough equivalent of the same tense in English. Thus He estudiado - he is the first-person indicative singular form of haber, and estudiado is the past participle of estudiar - would usually be translated as I have studied, where studied is the past participle of to study. In general, the present perfect tense is used to discuss actions that took place in the past but still have relevance to the present or are continuing up to the present. Note, however, that the present perfect tense of Spanish doesnt always coincide exactly with that of English; in some cases, the tense in Spanish may be translated to the English using the simple past. And there are regional variations in the tenses as well; especially in Spain, for example, it is common to use the present perfect for very recent events. Nunca he conocido a nadie como tà º. (I have never met someone like you.) ¿Cul es el mejor CD que has comprado? (What is the best CD you have purchased?)Hemos sufrido una pà ©rdida irreparable. (We have suffered an irreparable loss.)Bolivia y Nicaragua han pedido que el Consejo de Seguridad sea convocado de urgencia. (Bolivia and Nicaragua have asked that the Security Council be convened in emergency session.)Hace una hora ha nacido mi sobrina. (An hour ago, my niece was born. In some regions, the preterite would be preferred: Hace una hora nacià ³ mi sobrina.)Hoy he visto algo raro. (Today I saw something unusual.) Past Perfect Also known as the pluperfect, the past perfect tense is formed by using the imperfect form of haber followed by the past participle. Its uses generally coincide with the past perfect of English, formed by using had and the past participle. The distinction in meaning with the present perfect is that in the pluperfect the verbs action is completed and clearly distinct from the present. Yo habà ­a entendido los conceptos del curso, pero no los habà ­a aplicado. (I had understood the concepts of the course, but I had not applied them.)A medio kilà ³metro de distancia se encontraron otros cuatro cuerpos masculinos, que hasta el momento no habà ­an sido identificados. (A half kilometer away four other male bodies were found, which until that moment had not been identified.)Habà ­amos luchado durante tres aà ±os defendiendo la Repà ºblica. (We had fought for three years defending the Republic.)Mi padre habà ­a tenido una vida dura, pero llena de triunfos. (My father had had a hard life, but one full of triumphs.) Preterite Perfect The preterite perfect, sometimes known as the pretà ©rito anterior, is rarely used today except for literary effect; you are unlikely to hear it in everyday speech. It most often follows a time expression (such as cuando or despuà ©s que) and is formed by using the preterite of haber followed by past participle. It is usually translated to English the same way as the past perfect. Cuando el nià ±o se hubo dormido, el cura me pidià ³ permiso para dejarme. (When the boy had fallen asleep, the priest asked me for permission to leave me.)Tan pronto hubo escuchado aquellas palabras, salià ³ corriendo hacia la plaza. (As soon as he had heard those words, he left running toward the plaza.) Preterite Progressive The preterite progressive or preterite continuous is formed by using the preterite form of estar before the gerund. It is the equivalent of the was/were verb -ing construction in English but is used much less frequently. The Spanish preterite progressive often suggests that an action takes place or is repeated over an extended period of time. Este fin de semana pasado estuve andando por las calles de Oslo. (This past weekend I was walking through the streets of Oslo.)Estuve leyendo todos sus mensajes.  (I was reading all your messages.)Estuvimos muriendo de frà ­o. (We were dying of cold.) Imperfect Progressive The imperfect progressive (or imperfect continuous) is similar in meaning to the preterite progressive and is somewhat more common. It also is usually the equivalent of the was/were verb -ing construction in English. The imperfect progressive often suggests the ongoing nature of an action, while the preterite subjunctive suggests that it had an end. In practice, however, the distinction is a subtle one; all the example sentences with the preterite progressive could have been said in the imperfect progressive with little if any translatable difference in meaning. Un dà ­a antes del examen estuve estudiando con mi amigo. (One day before the test I was studying with my friend.)El actor estaba comiendo saludable como siempre. (The actor was eating healthfully as always.) Past Perfect Progressive Tenses Combine the gerund with the present perfect or pluperfect tense of estar (or of to be in English), and you end up with the past perfect progressive tenses. Their usage in the two languages is similar. Present indicative of haber estado gerund is the equivalent of have/has been gerund and imperfect of haber estado gerund is the equivalent of had been gerund. The present perfect progressive can refer to continuing actions that may be taking place up to the present:  ¿Cà ³mo se sabe si alguien ha estado usando marihuana? (How do you know if someone has been using marijuana?)He estado pensando en ti.  (I have been thinking about you.)Mam y yo hemos estado hablando del futuro.  (Mom and I have been talking about the future.) The pluperfect progressive tense, in contrast, generally refers to continuing actions that are completed (or, if still occurring, are no longer relevant): Andrea habà ­a estado hablando con Pablo todo el dà ­a.  (Andrea had been talking with Pablo all day.)Habà ­amos estado buscando una casa en Madrid. (We had been looking for a house in Madrid.)Habà ­an estado viviendo allà ­ mucho antes de que los espaà ±oles llegaran.  (They had been living there long before the Spaniards arrived.)

Monday, November 4, 2019

Discuss a portion of the clip Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Discuss a portion of the clip - Essay Example Firstly, the film producer relies on music to place the film in its immediate context. Application of Nazi anthem illustrates the political era depicted by the films plot. The filmmaker intends to illustrate life in the midst of wars and political revolutions. Thus, the clip applies music to illustrate the thin boundary that exists within emotions. The clip illustrates romance that flourished in the midst of war and anguish. Despite the immediate political situation, the characters purposed to maintain their romantic relationships. La Marseillaise is the French national anthem and it stands out as a symbol of love and harmony throughout the film. Finally, the film uses sound tracks or music to enhance interest among its audience. The use of popular music such as the French national anthem makes the audience associate themselves with the film, hence increasing their interest. Both pieces of music illustrate different points of view among the film’s

Saturday, November 2, 2019

The Process of Managing and Design of Projects in the Construction Essay

The Process of Managing and Design of Projects in the Construction Industry - Essay Example The building has large gently sloping roofs with open vaulted ceilings and steel truss systems. It has large walls roofs and magnificent floor panels. The straight walls prevent bowing and curve hence enabling installation of tall shelves and cabinets. The building envelope considers the heated and unheated general warehouses for the rack, bulk, and storage of bins, shipping space, creating and toilet space. The design focuses on functionality and efficiency, safety, comfort, display of aesthetics, landscaping, and work safety among others. The form of the retail warehouse considers storage space, office space, and dockyard for loading, space for light industry and centres for computers. Meanwhile, warehouses are designing based on future and current needs; maximize space with good and sufficient employee movement and material handling. Layout and configuration should be optimized for quick material handling and storage. Connect the exterior and interior for goods flow in the process . Aisle widths, the design of lighting, mezzanine space, fire guards and egress design is provided for alternative material handling methods. This consists of narrow two-story terraced bungalows sitting on large block s in the city suburbs. These flats are indeed increasing in numbers. The locality may constitute both detached and semi-detached houses. The choice of terraced forms is its prevalence in the inner city which came into existence before the establishments of car bazaars. Population growth has necessitated the growth of multi-unit apartments. This has also been provoked by pressure on the environment and economy to reduce family numbers.